MGMP IPA RAYON 3 SMP KABUPATEN MAJALENGKA. SEKRETARIAT DI SMPN 4 MAJA.BY. ARMADA PAHLA, M.Pd
MGMP IPA RAYON 3 SMP KABUPATEN MAJALENGKA. SEKRETARIAT DI SMPN 4 MAJA.BY. ARMADA PAHLA, M.Pd.
MGMP IPA RAYON 3 SMP KABUPATEN MAJALENGKA. SEKRETARIAT DI SMPN 4 MAJA.BY. ARMADA PAHLA, M.Pd.
MGMP IPA RAYON 3 SMP KABUPATEN MAJALENGKA. SEKRETARIAT DI SMPN 4 MAJA.BY. ARMADA PAHLA, M.Pd bersama KADISDIK, KABID DIKDAS, KASI SMP.
MGMP IPA RAYON 3 SMP KABUPATEN MAJALENGKA. SEKRETARIAT DI SMPN 4 MAJA.BY. ARMADA PAHLA, M.Pd.bersama MKKS, KKPS, dan FORUM MGMP
Sunday, 14 April 2013
Sunday, 7 April 2013
Thursday, 28 March 2013
Wednesday, 27 March 2013
Tuesday, 26 March 2013
Monday, 25 March 2013
Sunday, 24 March 2013
Thursday, 21 March 2013
Wednesday, 20 March 2013
Tuesday, 19 March 2013
Wednesday, 6 March 2013
Monday, 4 March 2013
Friday, 22 February 2013
THE STARS AND THE SUN
DEATH OF THE STARS AND THE SUN8- When the stars are put out. 77-The Emissaries, 8 At the time of the descent of the Quran, people believed that the light of the stars would last forever. This at a time when the inner structure of the stars was a mystery and the fact that the energy of the stars would, one day, be exhausted was not known. The Quran?s prediction about the end of the stars is a miraculous statement. 2- When the planets are scattered. 82-The Shattering, 2 While the verses speak of the putting out of stars, the planets, not light sources, will scatter. The Arabic word for a star is ?najm,? while ?kavkab? is a planet. Given the fact that the planets are dependent on a central star, when this star is no more, the planets will necessarily scatter. (There have been translators who translated both words as stars without heeding the difference between them.) Planets are not light sources, therefore their extinction is out of question. The Quran displays its miraculous attribute in all its statements. 1- When the sun is rolled. 81-The Rolling, 1 The Arabic word ?takwir? refers to the wrapping of the turban around the head in a spiral form; it also means the rolling or winding of a thing into a ball or round mass, or around something. The scene describes how the end of the sun will come. Like all the other stars, our sun also consumes hydrogen atoms by transforming them into helium atoms and releasing energy in the form of radiation, heat and light. The transformation of hydrogen into helium stops with the exhaustion of the hydrogen. Even without the effect of other potential causes, the sun will have to come to an end for this reason. Before their extinction, the stars, according to their sizes, pass through such phases as red giant, white dwarf or black hole. In view of its magnitude, our sun must turn first into a red giant before dying. The sun has been a subject of worship in the history of mankind. People who did not believe in the end of the universe considered the sun itself to be an immortal divinity and thought that the universe and the earth would last eternally; there have been those who believed in the transmigration of souls everlastingly. Having eventually been convinced by scientific discoveries that the world was doomed to die one day, the minds that idolized the sun and the belief in the eternal reincarnation cycle lost their support. The belief in the Hereafter described in the Quran and the end of the universe are interconnected as the stages of a system. Taking cognizance of the fact that the end of the universe will eventually come has reinforced the belief in the Hereafter. 7- And verily the Hour is coming, no doubt about it, and that God will resurrect those who are dead. 22-The Pilgrimage, 7 The description of the end of the universe in the Quran relating to the end of the sun and of the world is given in striking colors. What the people at the Prophet?s time knew about astronomy could not possibly have permitted them to describe such occurrences. Muslims who lived at the time of the revelation of the Quran believed in all these, not because of scientific deductions but because they had faith in the fact that it was easy for God, the Creator of the heavens and the earth, to destroy them. All the statements of the Quran about the disappearance of the stars, the sun and the earth are corroborated today by scientific discoveries. EARTHQUAKES WITH BOILING SEAS 4- When the earth will be shaken up. 56-The Inevitable, 4 When the Hour comes, the entire earth will be shaken by a terrible earthquake. The Quran says that the tremor will cause mountains to be pulverized, and men will run to and fro in panic. As for the sea, we have the following indications: 6- When the seas boil. 81-The Rolling, 6 3- When the seas are suffered to burst forth. 82-The Shattering, 3 An earthquake will pulverize mountains, hot lava will burst forth from many corners of the earth. Volcanoes will erupt and lava will rise from the sea. It is unlikely that the depiction of the end of the world was an exaggeration of natural disasters that Muhammad experienced in his lifetime. The area where Muhammad lived was not on a major earthquake fault-line, and those who spent most of their lives in the middle of desert, most likely, never witnessed the eruption of a volcano in mid-ocean! 5- When the wild beasts are summoned. 81-The Rolling, 5 The Quran draws our attention to the herding together of animals. We know today that animals react to a tremor even before we, as human beings, realize it. For instance, in the zoo in Seattle Woodland, the odd movements of elephants and the restlessness of gorillas in their cages were observed before the earthquake was felt by human beings. This is a domain in which further research studies are being conducted. In view of this statement of the Quran, we think that this research should be intensified. 3- And when the earth is flattened out. 4- And when it throws out whatever it contains and is empty. 84-The Splitting, 3-4 The contents of the earth, the magma, the molten rock, will rise to the surface as lava, as described in the verses quoted. The Quran would like us to turn our attention to the most serious event of earth history to come. Advanced science has demonstrated that the end of the world and the universe is inevitable. No one can assert any longer that the stars and the sun will shine forever, and that the universe and the earth will abide to eternity. 18- Are they waiting until the Hour comes to them suddenly? Its signs have already appeared. How can they benefit then when it has come upon them? 47-Muhammad, 18 Copyright © 2001-2008 Quranic Research Group
astronimy and space From : A.Armada Pahla Mashad, M.Pd. Solar System “And God of Allah which have created noon and night, moon and sun. Everyone of both that circulate in its orbit..” (LQ:21.33) ‘’And God of Allah have subdued ( pula) for you continuous moon and sun circulate ( in its orbit); and have subdued for you noon and night.’’ (LQ:14.33) INTRODUCTION Solar System the Sun and everything that orbits the Sun, including the nine planets and their satellites; the asteroids and comets; and interplanetary dust and gas. The term may also refer to a group of celestial bodies orbiting another star (see Extrasolar Planets). In this article, solar system refers to the system that includes Earth and the Sun. The dimensions of the solar system are specified in terms of the mean distance from Earth to the Sun, called the astronomical unit (AU). One AU is 150 million km (about 93 million mi). The most distant known planet, Pluto, orbits about 39 AU from the Sun. Estimates for the boundary where the Sun’s magnetic field ends and interstellar space begins—called the heliopause—range from 86 to 100 AU. The most distant known planetoid orbiting the Sun is Sedna, whose discovery was reported in March 2004. A planetoid is an object that is too small to be a planet. At the farthest point in its orbit, Sedna is about 900 AU from the Sun. Comets known as long-period comets, however, achieve the greatest distance from the Sun; they have highly eccentric orbits ranging out to 50,000 AU or more. The solar system was the only planetary system known to exist around a star similar to the Sun until 1995, when astronomers discovered a planet about 0.6 times the mass of Jupiter orbiting the star 51 Pegasi. Jupiter is the most massive planet in our solar system. Soon after, astronomers found a planet about 8.1 times the mass of Jupiter orbiting the star 70 Virginis, and a planet about 3.5 times the mass of Jupiter orbiting the star 47 Ursa Majoris. Since then, astronomers have found planets and disks of dust in the process of forming planets around many other stars. Most astronomers think it likely that solar systems of some sort are numerous throughout the universe. See Astronomy; Galaxy; Star. THE SUN AND THE SOLAR WIND The Sun is a typical star of intermediate size and luminosity. Sunlight and other radiation are produced by the conversion of hydrogen into helium in the Sun’s hot, dense interior (see Nuclear Energy). Although this nuclear fusion is transforming 600 million metric tons of hydrogen each second, the Sun is so massive (2 × 1030 kg, or 4.4 × 1030 lb) that it can continue to shine at its present brightness for 6 billion years. This stability has allowed life to develop and survive on Earth. For all the Sun’s steadiness, it is an extremely active star. On its surface, dark sunspots bounded by intense magnetic fields come and go in 11-year cycles and sudden bursts of charged particles from solar flares can cause auroras and disturb radio signals on Earth. A continuous stream of protons, electrons, and ions also leaves the Sun and moves out through the solar system. This solar wind shapes the ion tails of comets and leaves its traces in the lunar soil, samples of which were brought back from the Moon’s surface by piloted United States Apollo spacecraft (see Space Exploration; Apollo program). The Sun’s activity also influences the heliopause, a region of space that astronomers believe marks the boundary between the solar system and interstellar space. The heliopause is a dynamic region that expands and contracts due to the constantly changing speed and pressure of the solar wind. In November 2003 a team of astronomers reported that the Voyager 1 spacecraft appeared to have encountered the outskirts of the heliopause at about 86 AU from the Sun. They based their report on data that indicated the solar wind had slowed from 1.1 million km/h (700,000 mph) to 160,000 km/h (100,000 mph). This finding is consistent with the theory that when the solar wind meets interstellar space at a turbulent zone known as the termination shock boundary, it will slow abruptly. However, another team of astronomers disputed the finding, saying that the spacecraft had neared but had not yet reached the heliopause. THE MAJOR PLANETS Nine major planets are currently known. They are commonly divided into two groups: the inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) and the outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune). The inner planets are small and are composed primarily of rock and iron. The outer planets are much larger and consist mainly of hydrogen, helium, and ice. Pluto does not belong to either group, and there is an ongoing debate as to whether Pluto should be categorized as a major planet. Mercury is surprisingly dense, apparently because it has an unusually large iron core. With only a transient atmosphere, Mercury has a surface that still bears the record of bombardment by asteroidal bodies early in its history. Venus has a carbon dioxide atmosphere 90 times thicker than that of Earth, causing an efficient greenhouse effect by which the Venusian atmosphere is heated. The resulting surface temperature is the hottest of any planet—about 477°C (about 890°F). Earth is the only planet known to have abundant liquid water and life. However, in 2004 astronomers with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mars Exploration Rover mission confirmed that Mars once had liquid water on its surface. Scientists had previously concluded that liquid water once existed on Mars due to the numerous surface features on the planet that resemble water erosion found on Earth. Mars’s carbon dioxide atmosphere is now so thin that the planet is dry and cold, with polar caps of frozen water and solid carbon dioxide, or dry ice. However, small jets of subcrustal water may still erupt on the surface in some places. Jupiter is the largest of the planets. Its hydrogen and helium atmosphere contains pastel-colored clouds, and its immense magnetosphere, rings, and satellites make it a planetary system unto itself. One of Jupiter’s largest moons, Io, has volcanoes that produce the hottest surface temperatures in the solar system. At least four of Jupiter’s moons have atmospheres, and at least three show evidence that they contain liquid or partially frozen water. Jupiter’s moon Europa may have a global ocean of liquid water beneath its icy crust. Saturn rivals Jupiter, with a much more intricate ring structure and a similar number of satellites. One of Saturn’s moons, Titan, has an atmosphere thicker than that of any other satellite in the solar system. Uranus and Neptune are deficient in hydrogen compared with Jupiter and Saturn; Uranus, also ringed, has the distinction of rotating at 98° to the plane of its orbit. Pluto seems similar to the larger, icy satellites of Jupiter or Saturn. Pluto is so distant from the Sun and so cold that methane freezes on its surface. See also Planetary Science. OTHER ORBITING BODIES The asteroids are small rocky bodies that move in orbits primarily between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Numbering in the thousands, asteroids range in size from Ceres, which has a diameter of 1,003 km (623 mi), to microscopic grains. Some asteroids are perturbed, or pulled by forces other than their attraction to the Sun, into eccentric orbits that can bring them closer to the Sun. If the orbits of such bodies intersect that of Earth, they are called meteoroids. When they appear in the night sky as streaks of light, they are known as meteors, and recovered fragments are termed meteorites. Laboratory studies of meteorites have revealed much information about primitive conditions in our solar system. The surfaces of Mercury, Mars, and several satellites of the planets (including Earth’s Moon) show the effects of an intense bombardment by asteroidal objects early in the history of the solar system. On Earth that record has eroded away, except for a few recently found impact craters. Some meteors and interplanetary dust may also come from comets, which are basically aggregates of dust and frozen gases typically 5 to 10 km (about 3 to 6 mi) in diameter. Comets orbit the Sun at distances so great that they can be perturbed by stars into orbits that bring them into the inner solar system. As comets approach the Sun, they release their dust and gases to form a spectacular coma and tail. Under the influence of Jupiter’s strong gravitational field, comets can sometimes adopt much smaller orbits. The most famous of these is Halley’s Comet, which returns to the inner solar system at 75-year periods. Its most recent return was in 1986. In July 1994 fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 bombarded Jupiter’s dense atmosphere at speeds of about 210,000 km/h (130,000 mph). Upon impact, the tremendous kinetic energy of the fragments was released through massive explosions, some resulting in fireballs larger than Earth. Comets circle the Sun in two main groups, within the Kuiper Belt or within the Oort cloud. The Kuiper Belt is a ring of debris that orbits the Sun beyond the planet Neptune. Many of the comets with periods of less than 500 years come from the Kuiper Belt. In 2002 astronomers discovered a planetoid in the Kuiper Belt, and they named it Quaoar. The Oort cloud is a hypothetical region about halfway between the Sun and the heliopause. Astronomers believe that the existence of the Oort cloud, named for Dutch astronomer Jan Oort, explains why some comets have very long periods. A chunk of dust and ice may stay in the Oort cloud for thousands of years. Nearby stars sometimes pass close enough to the solar system to push an object in the Oort cloud into an orbit that takes it close to the Sun. The first detection of the long-hypothesized Oort cloud came in March 2004 when astronomers reported the discovery of a planetoid about 1,700 km (about 1,000 mi) in diameter. They named it Sedna, after a sea goddess in Inuit mythology. Sedna was found about 13 billion km (about 8 billion mi) from the Sun. At its farthest point from the Sun, Sedna is the most distant object in the solar system and is about 130 billion km (about 84 billion mi) from the Sun. Many of the objects that do not fall into the asteroid belts, the Kuiper Belt, or the Oort cloud may be comets that will never make it back to the Sun. The surfaces of the icy satellites of the outer planets are scarred by impacts from such bodies. The asteroid-like object Chiron, with an orbit between Saturn and Uranus, may itself be an extremely large inactive comet. Similarly, some of the asteroids that cross the path of Earth’s orbit may be the rocky remains of burned-out comets. Chiron and similar objects called the Centaurs probably escaped from the Kuiper Belt and were drawn into their irregular orbits by the gravitational pull of the giant outer planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus. The Sun was also found to be encircled by rings of interplanetary dust. One of them, between Jupiter and Mars, has long been known as the cause of zodiacal light, a faint glow that appears in the east before dawn and in the west after dusk. Another ring, lying only two solar widths away from the Sun, was discovered in 1983. MOVEMENTS OF THE PLANETS AND THEIR SATELLITES If one could look down on the solar system from far above the North Pole of Earth, the planets would appear to move around the Sun in a counterclockwise direction. All of the planets except Venus and Uranus rotate on their axes in this same direction. The entire system is remarkably flat—only Mercury and Pluto have obviously inclined orbits. Pluto’s orbit is so elliptical that it is sometimes closer than Neptune to the Sun. The satellite systems mimic the behavior of their parent planets and move in a counterclockwise direction, but many exceptions are found. Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune each have at least one satellite that moves around the planet in a retrograde orbit (clockwise instead of counterclockwise), and several satellite orbits are highly elliptical. Jupiter, moreover, has trapped two clusters of asteroids (the so-called Trojan asteroids) leading and following the planet by 60° in its orbit around the Sun. (Some satellites of Saturn have done the same with smaller bodies.) The comets exhibit a roughly spherical distribution of orbits around the Sun. Within this maze of motions, some remarkable patterns exist: Mercury rotates on its axis three times for every two revolutions about the Sun; no asteroids exist with periods (intervals of time needed to complete one revolution) 1/2, 1/3, …, 1/n (where n is an integer) the period of Jupiter; the three inner Galilean satellites of Jupiter have periods in the ratio 4:2:1. These and other examples demonstrate the subtle balance of forces that is established in a gravitational system composed of many bodies. THEORIES OF ORIGIN Despite their differences, the members of the solar system probably form a common family. They seem to have originated at the same time; few indications exist of bodies joining the solar system, captured later from other stars or interstellar space. Early attempts to explain the origin of this system include the nebular hypothesis of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant and the French astronomer and mathematician Pierre Simon de Laplace, according to which a cloud of gas broke into rings that condensed to form planets. Doubts about the stability of such rings led some scientists to consider various catastrophic hypotheses, such as a close encounter of the Sun with another star. Such encounters are extremely rare, and the hot, tidally disrupted gases would dissipate rather than condense to form planets. Current theories connect the formation of the solar system with the formation of the Sun itself, about 4.7 billion years ago. The fragmentation and gravitational collapse of an interstellar cloud of gas and dust, triggered perhaps by nearby supernova explosions, may have led to the formation of a primordial solar nebula. The Sun would then form in the densest, central region. It is so hot close to the Sun that even silicates, which are relatively dense, have difficulty forming there. This phenomenon may account for the presence near the Sun of a planet such as Mercury, having a relatively small silicate crust and a larger than usual, dense iron core. (It is easier for iron dust and vapor to coalesce near the central region of a solar nebula than it is for lighter silicates to do so.) At larger distances from the center of the solar nebula, gases condense into solids such as are found today from Jupiter outward. Evidence of a possible preformation supernova explosion appears as traces of anomalous isotopes in tiny inclusions in some meteorites. This association of planet formation with star formation suggests that billions of other stars in our galaxy may also have planets. The high frequency of binary and multiple stars, as well as the large satellite systems around Jupiter and Saturn, attest to the tendency of collapsing gas clouds to fragment into multibody systems. See separate articles for most of the celestial bodies mentioned in this article. See also Exobiology. Contributed By:Tobias C. Owen Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2006. © 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
The Story of the Quran (part 1 of 2) God’s Final Revelation In the top 20 of viewed articles A new article (Published within the last 30 days) Description: What is the Quran? By Aisha Stacey (© 2009 IslamReligion.com) Published on 03 Aug 2009 - Last modified on 10 Aug 2009 Viewed: 611 (daily average: 75) - Rating: 5 out of 5 - Rated by: 3 Printed: 19 - Emailed: 2 - Commented on: 0 Category: Articles > The Holy Quran > The Authenticity and Preservation of the Holy Quran Muslims believe the Quran to be God’s final revelation. They believe it is the literal word of God, revealed over many years, to His final prophet, Muhammad. The Quran is full of wisdom. It is full of the wonder and glory of God, and a testament to His mercy and justice. It is not a history book, a storybook, or a scientific textbook, although it contains all of those genres. The Quran is God's greatest gift to humanity – it is a book like no other. In the second verse of the second chapter of the Quran, God describes the Quran by calling it a book whereof there is no doubt, a guidance to those who are pious, righteous, and fear God. (Quran 2:2) The Quran is core to Islam. Believing in it is a requirement. One who does not believe in the Quran, in its entirety, cannot claim to be a Muslim. "The Messenger (Muhammad) believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in God, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. (They say,) ‘We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers’ — and they say, ‘We hear, and we obey. (We seek) Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the return (of all)’." (Quran 2:285) Islam has two primary sources, the Quran, and the authentic traditions of Prophet Muhammad, that explain and sometimes expand on that of the Quran. “And We have not sent down the Book (the Quran) to you (O Muhammad, except that you may explain clearly unto them those things in which they differ, and (as) a guidance and a mercy for a folk who believe.” (Quran 16:64) The Quran was delivered to Prophet Muhammad by the Angel Gabriel and revealed in stages over a period of 23 years. “And (it is) a Quran which We have divided into parts, in order that you might recite it to men at intervals. And We have revealed it by stages.” (Quran 17:106) Prophet Muhammad was commanded by God to convey the Quran to all of humankind and the responsibility weighed heavily upon him. Even in his farewell address he called on the people present to bear witness that he had delivered the message. The Quran explains the concept of God, it explains in detail what is permissible and what is forbidden, it explains the basics of good manners and morals, and gives rulings about worship. It tells stories about the Prophets and our righteous predecessors, and describes paradise and hell. The Quran is a guidance, a mercy and a book of glad tidings for those who have submitted themselves to God. (Quran 16:89) The Quran was revealed for all of humankind. The book in which the Quran (the words of God) are contained in is called a mus haf. The Quran is considered so unique in content and style that it cannot be precisely translated; therefore, any translation is considered an interpretation of the meanings of Quran. When God sent Prophets to the various nations He often allowed them to perform miracles that were relevant to their particular time and place. In the time of Moses magic and sorcery were prevalent therefore Moses’ miracles appealed to the people he was sent to guide. In the time of Muhammad, the Arabs, although predominantly illiterate, were masters of the spoken word. Their poetry and prose was considered outstanding and a model of literary excellence. When Prophet Muhammad recited the Quran – the words of God – the Arabs were moved tremendously by its sublime tone and extraordinary beauty. The Quran was Prophet Muhammad’s miracle from God. Muhammad was unable to read or write therefore the Arabs knew that he was unlikely to have produced such eloquent words, but even so some refused to believe that the Quran was the word of God. God therefore challenged them, in the Quran, to produce a rival text. “And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christians) are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down (i.e. the Quran) to Our slave (Muhammad), then produce a chapter of the like thereof and call your witnesses (supporters and helpers) besides God, if you are truthful.” (Quran 2:23) Of course they were unable to do so. In contrast to those who questioned the origin of the Quran, many Arabs converted to Islam after hearing the recitation. They knew immediately that such sublime beauty could originate only from God. Even today it is possible to see Muslims moved to tears while listening to or reciting the Quran. In fact some people, unable to understand even one word of the Arabic language are moved by the intrinsic beauty of the Quran. After establishing that Quran is the word of God and that it is a recitation, it is also important to understand that Quran has remained unchanged for more than 1400 years. Today when a Muslim in Egypt holds his mus haf in his hands and begins to recite you can be sure that in far away Fiji another Muslim is looking at and reciting the exact same words. There are no differences. The child in France holding his first mus haf is tentatively reciting the same words that flowed from the lips of Prophet Muhammad. God assures us in Quran that He will surely protect His words. He says, “Verily, it is We Who have sent down the Quran and surely, We will guard it (from corruption).” (Quran 15:9) This means that God will guard against anything false being added or any part of it being taken away. It is protected from tampering and if anyone attempts to distort the meanings of Quran, God will guide someone to expose the deception. Muslims believe that the previous revelations from God, including the Torah and the Gospels of Jesus were either lost in antiquity, or changed and distorted, so it is a source of comfort to them knowing that God’s words – the Quran – are now well guarded. God sent down Quran, from above the heavens, to the angel Gabriel in the glorious month of Ramadan. The story of how this recitation was revealed and how Quran came to be available worldwide, with an interpretation of the meanings translated into over 100 languages will be covered in part 2.